Overview of Special Education Services



Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE):-  a program focused on developmental areas and the goals and objectives determined appropriate by ARD committee. IF you are aware of a child who may have a need for services, please encourage family to contact CISD SPED office to refer the child. The ECSE program is for children ages 3-5 and is currently located on the Elementary campus.  The progress of children enrolled in ECSE will be based upon advancement toward mastery of IEP goals and objectives.

Walk-In Speech Therapy Services: This service is for children who have articulation, moderate syntax, voice or fluency delays. Therapy is delivered in a small group setting (1-4 students). The child typically attends 1-2 times per week for 30 minutes. The curriculum is IEP-driven



Mainstream: This instructional setting provides special education and related services in the regular classroom in accordance with a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). Qualified special education personnel are involved in the implementation of the student's IEP. In addition, the student's regular classroom teacher(s) is a critical component in the instructional process. Examples of special education services provided in the general education classroom include, but are not limited to, direct instruction, helping teacher, team teaching, co-teaching, paraprofessionals to help support instruction, instructional accommodations, curriculum modification, specialized materials/equipment, and consultation with the student and their regular classroom teacher(s) regarding the student's progress in regular education classes.

 Resource:  Resource is a structured program based on the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills general education curriculum in Reading, Language Arts/English, and Math.  Instruction in a resource setting is provided by a Special Education teacher and is designed to meet individual academic needs and increase academic competence.

Adapted physical education: Is a service for students with disabilities from birth through 21 years of age. This is a diversified program of developmental activities, games, sports, aquatics and rhythmical movements suited to the interests, capacities, limitations of students with disabilities who may or may not safely or successfully engage in the activities of a general physical education program

Instruction for Students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing: Clifton ISD partners with the Regional Day School Program for the Deaf (RDSPD) in Waco ISD to provide a range of educational services for students with hearing impairments, including students who are deaf, as determined by the ARD Committee.

Instruction for Students with Vision Impairments: Certified Teachers of the Visually Impaired provide services to students who are blind or have impaired vision that cannot be corrected with prescription lenses to 20/70 in the better eye, or who may have a progressive condition that will result in no vision.

Speech and Language Therapy:  Speech therapy services in a school are based on an educational model. Under this, students are provided with the services they need to succeed in a school setting with a focus on supporting a student’s ability to understand and use information taught in the classroom and participate in learning to achieve success both academically and socially. Speech therapy is an instructional special education service which means it can be the only service a student receives or it can also be provided as a part of a more in-depth IEP for students with disabilities such as autism, traumatic brain injury, learning disability and attention deficit disorder. Speech Language Pathologists in schools typically evaluate and provide direct individual and/or group therapy as well as consultative services for skills such as articulation, language, social skills, executive functioning, voice, and fluency. Speech Language Pathologists also serve an important role in educating parents and teachers about communication disorders.



LIFE (Learning in Functional Environment)- Life Skills: The LIFE program, also commonly referred to as CBI (Community Based Instruction) foundation in the emphasis on functional academics and daily living skills.  The ARD committee will individually determine the severe challenges who are appropriately served in a more restrictive placement such as LIFE classes. These decisions are based on evaluation and development of goals and objectives.  The progress of a student enrolled in a functional curriculum will be based on the advancement toward the mastery of IEP goals and objectives.

Home-bound:  This service is designed to provide instruction to students who are unable to attend school due to accidents, illness, or a non-contagious disease as documented by a licensed physician.  Students instructed through home-bound services are expected to be confined to the home for a minimum of four consecutive weeks or any period of time totaling at least four weeks throughout the school year.

PASS program is for students with disabilities whose behavior interferes with learning or the learning of others to such an extent that a specialized behavior intervention program is needed. This program continues to address academic needs while providing behavior education in the student LRE (Least Restrictive Environment).  PASS also serves general education students whose behavior problems have identified them as at-risk and possibly served under 504.



Assistive technology (AT) is any item, piece of equipment, software or product system that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.  AT provides access to curriculum, allows for independence and enables students to actively participate in their education. The ARD committee may request an evaluation from the Assistive Technology Team in order to determine if a student needs a specialized device/equipment in order to access their curriculum.

Audiological Services School based audiological services include an educational audiologist making recommendations to support a student who is deaf/hard of hearing to gain access to information, both auditory and visual, to succeed in the classroom. For students using personal hearing instruments (e.g., hearing aids/devices), audiological services may include support for teachers, assistants, parents and students so they may understand how to perform daily listening checks to ensure the hearing instruments are working properly so students may access information. Audiological services may also support the evaluation, fit, and management of personal and classroom remote-microphone hearing assistance and other technologies.

Behavior Support Services A Behavior Specialists participate in the evaluation process as needed, and provide training and support to school staff working to support an individual student. They assist campus staff in identifying the root cause of negative behavior using an effective problem-solving process. Comprehensive support plans involving the use of positive behavior support strategies are developed by the school to include the teaching of appropriate interpersonal and/or social skills.

Occupational Therapy (OT) Educationally based occupational therapy is provided, as a related service, to enhance the special education student’s ability to adapt to and physically function within an educational environment. The goal of educationally relevant occupational therapy is to minimize the effects of the student’s disability on their ability to participate in the educational process.

Orientation & Mobility Services (O&M) Orientation and mobility is a related service for some students with visual impairments which enhances their understanding of basic body awareness through skills to navigate their environment efficiently, effectively, and safely. It supports the development of a student’s understanding of where he is in space and where he wants to go (orientation). It also helps him/her carry out the plan to get there (mobility). After an evaluation is completed, an ARD/IEP Committee determines goals and objectives for the student and the need for O&M services.

Psychological Services are provided by Licensed Specialists in School Psychology (LSSPs). LSSPs are uniquely qualified members of school teams that support students’ ability to learn and teachers’ ability to teach. They apply expertise in mental health, learning, and behavior to help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. LSSPs partner with families, teachers, school administrators, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments that strengthen connections between home, school, and the community. Specific psychological services are provided when prerequisites have been met. Services include general and special education consultation, special education evaluation, and special education indirect and direct counseling services

Physical Therapy (PT) Educationally based (school based) physical therapy, provided as a related service, should be directed towards achievement of the functional tasks required to participate and benefit from special education services. School based physical therapy is provided to minimize the effects of the student’s disability on their ability to participate in the educational process.

School Health Services are determined by the ARD/IEP Committee based on evaluation and individual student need. These services may be provided directly by a school nurse, or indirectly through the nurse’s training the teacher, assistant, and other staff to appropriately complete an individual student’s health related support.

Special Education Transportation is included in an eligible child’s IEP if the ARD/IEP Committee determines that such a service is needed in order for the child to benefit from his or her special education. The term has a specific meaning and is defined in the IDEA as:

  • travel to and from school and between schools;

  • travel in and around school buildings; and

  • specialized equipment (such as special or adapted buses, lifts, and ramps), if required to provide special transportation for a child with a disability.